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Among the areas of content regulation covered are: legal definitions related to the content industry; branches of the content industry broken down according to content category and distribution system; the division of competences between the EC and the Member States in cultural affairs; Community projects relevant to the content industry; competition rules relating to distribution; market entry and access regulation in the electronic communication markets; specific regulation for such considerations as the protection of minors, protection of health, protection of consumers, and protection of personal rights; ensuring and safeguarding functioning market structures in the content markets; and harmonization and coordination measures.

The basis of this book was a research project commissioned by the Austrian Federal Chancellery in preparation for a seminar supported by the European Commission in connection with Austria s Council Presidency in the first half of As a systematic overview and analysis of the legal bases of European content regulation, this book will be of extraordinary value to practitioners, policymakers, officials, and academics in the fields of media and communications law.

Beyond that, the work sheds a clear and defining light on an area that has an important role to play in the future economic growth and the development of a competitive business environment in Europe. Advanced Search. Book of the Month. More Information. Series: European Monographs. Giovanni Bassani. Assess , — Does exposure to glyphosate lead to an increase in the micronuclei frequency? A systematic and meta-analytic review. Chemosphere , 42— Gholami-Seyedkolaei, S. Effect of a glyphosate-based herbicide in Cyprinus carpio : assessment of acetylcholinesterase activity, hematological responses and serum biochemical parameters.

Gill, J. Glyphosate toxicity for animals. Glozier, N. Occurrence of glyphosate and acidic herbicides in select urban rivers and streams in Canada, Low concentrations of glyphosate-based herbicide cause complete loss of sperm motility of yellowtail tetra fish Astyanax lacustris. Fish Biol. Goulart, T. In Vitro 29, — Gress, S. Glyphosate-based herbicides potently affect cardiovascular system in mammals: review of the literature.

Guerrero Schimpf, M. Neonatal exposure to a glyphosate based herbicide alters the development of the rat uterus. Toxicology , 2— Guilherme, S. Mutagenesis 25, — DNA and chromosomal damage induced in fish Anguilla anguilla L. Guyton, K. Carcinogenicity of tetrachlorvinphos, parathion, malathion, diazinon, and glyphosate.

Lancet Oncol. Hamdaoui, L. Nephrotoxicity of Kalach SL: biochemical and histopathological findings. Methods 26, — Han, H. Plant Cell Environ. Hanke, I. Relevance of urban glyphosate use for surface water quality. Chemosphere 81, — Harayashiki, C. Jr, Machado, A. Toxic effects of the herbicide Roundup in the guppy Poecilia vivipara acclimated to fresh water.

Toxicol —, — Hardell, L. A case-control study of non-Hodgkin lymphoma and exposure to pesticides. Cancer 85, — Exposure to pesticides as risk factor for non-Hodgkin's lymphoma and hairy cell leukemia: pooled analysis of two Swedish case-control studies.

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Leuk Lymphoma 43, — Haskovic, E. Effects of glyphosate on enzyme activity and serum glucose in rats Rattus norvegicus. Acta Vet Beograd. Heinemann, J. Sustainability and innovation in staple crop production in the US Midwest. Acute toxicity and sublethal effects of the mixture glyphosate Roundup Active and Cosmo-Flux F to anuran embryos and tadpoles of four Colombian species. Heras-Mendaza, F. Erythema multiforme-like eruption due to an irritant contact dermatitis from a glyphosate pesticide.

Contact Dermatitis 59, 54— Oxidative stress induced by glyphosate-based herbicide on freshwater turtles. The herbicide glyphosate causes behavioral changes and alterations in dopaminergic markers in male Sprague-Dawley rat. Neurotoxicology 46, 79— Heu, C. A step further toward glyphosate-induced epidermal cell death: involvement of mitochondrial and oxidative mechanisms.

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Hong, Y. Effects of glyphosate on immune responses and haemocyte DNA damage of Chinese mitten crab, Eriocheir sinensis. Fish Shellfish Immunol. Huhn, C. More and enhanced glyphosate analysis is needed. Huntscha, S. Seasonal dynamics of glyphosate and AMPA in Lake Greifensee: rapid microbial degradation in the epilimnion during summer.

Re-evaluation of glyphosate determination in water by liquid chromatography coupled to electrospray tandem mass spectrometry. A , 51— Infante, P. InfoCuria Court of Justice of the European Union. Ingaramo, P.


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Neonatal exposure to a glyphosate-based herbicide alters uterine decidualization in rats. Effects of neonatal exposure to a glyphosate-based herbicide on female rat reproduction. Reproduction , — International Agency for Research on Cancer Some Organophosphate Insecticides and Herbicides. James, C. Janssens, L. Stronger effects of Roundup than its active ingredient glyphosate in damselfly larvae.

Jayasumana, C. Glyphosate, hard water and nephrotoxic metals: are they the culprits behind the epidemic of chronic kidney disease of unknown etiology in Sri Lanka? Public Health 11, — Simultaneous exposure to multiple heavy metals and glyphosate may contribute to Sri Lankan agricultural nephropathy. BMC Nephrol. Jin, J. Sub-lethal effects of herbicides penoxsulam, imazamox, fluridone and glyphosate on Delta Smelt Hypomesus transpacificus. Fish toxicity of commercial herbicides formulated with glyphosate. Johnston, I. EU experts accused of conflict of interest over herbicide linked to cancer.

The Independent, Mar 7, Summary Report. Removal and degradation of glyphosate in water treatment: a review. Aqua 62, — Jugulam, M. Molecular cytogenetics to characterize mechanisms of gene duplication in pesticide resistance. Pest Manage Sci. Kaiser, K. Preliminary study of pesticide drift into the Maya Mountain protected areas of Belize. Effects of low doses of glyphosate on DNA damage, cell proliferation and oxidative stress in the HepG2 cell line. Kier, L. Review of genotoxicity biomonitoring studies of glyphosate-based formulations.

Review of genotoxicity studies of glyphosate and glyphosate-based formulations. Kim, G. Herbicide injury induces DNA methylome alterations in Arabidopsis. PeerJ 5:e Kim, Y. Mixtures of glyphosate and surfactant TN20 accelerate cell death via mitochondrial damage-induced apoptosis and necrosis. In Vitro 27, — Kissane, Z. The rise of glyphosate and new opportunities for biosentinel early-warning studies. Kjaer, J. Leaching of glyphosate and amino-methylphosphonic acid from Danish agricultural field sites.

Z, Bohus, P. Authorization and toxicity of veterinary drugs and plant protection products: residues of the active ingredients in food and feed and toxicity problems related to adjuvants. Vet Sci. Dissipation of the herbicide active ingredient glyphosate in natural water samples in the presence of biofilms. Kniss, A. Long-term trends in the intensity and relative toxicity of herbicide use.

Knudsen, L. Health 32, — Koller, V. Cytotoxic and DNA-damaging properties of glyphosate and Roundup in human-derived buccal epithelial cells. Kolpin, D. Kondera, E. Effect of glyphosate-based herbicide on hematological and hemopoietic parameters in common carp Cyprinus carpio L. Fish Physiol. Detection of Glyphosate Residues in Animals and Humans. Kumar, S. Toxicol , 42— Kurenbach, B. Herbicide ingredients change Salmonella enterica sv. Typhimurium and Escherichia coli antibiotic responses.

Microbiology , — Kwiatkowska, M. The effect of metabolites and impurities of glyphosate on human erythrocytes in vitro. The impact of glyphosate, its metabolites and impurities on viability, ATP level and morphological changes in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells.

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DNA damage and methylation induced by glyphosate in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells in vitro study. Analysis of glyphosate degradation in a soil microcosm.

Lajmanovich, R. Toxicity of four herbicide formulations with glyphosate on Rhinella arenarum Anura: Bufonidae tadpoles: B-esterases and glutathione S-transferase inhibitors. Mutagen , 7— Individual and mixture toxicity of commercial formulations containing glyphosate, metsulfuron-methyl, bispyribac-sodium, and picloram on Rhinella arenarum tadpoles. Induction of mortality and malformation in Scinax nasicus tadpoles exposed to glyphosate formulations.

Landry, D. Larsen, K. Effects of sub-lethal exposure of rats to the herbicide glyphosate in drinking water: glutathione transferase enzyme activities, levels of reduced glutathione and lipid peroxidation in liver, kidneys and small intestine. Latorre, M. Lefrancq, M. High frequency monitoring of pesticides in runoff water to improve understanding of their transport and environmental impacts. Leveroni, F. Genotoxic response of blood, gill and liver cells of Piaractus mesopotamicus after an acute exposure to a glyphosate-based herbicide.

Caryologia 70, 21— Levis, N. Level of UV-B radiation influences the effects of glyphosate-based herbicide on the spotted salamander. Ecotoxicology 24, — Li, M. Metabolic profiling of goldfish Carassius auratus after long-term glyphosate-based herbicide exposure. Multi-tissue metabolic responses of goldfish Carassius auratus exposed to glyphosate-based herbicide. Li, Q. Glyphosate and AMPA inhibit cancer cell growth through inhibiting intracellular glycine synthesis. Drug Des. Lopes, F. Effect of glyphosate on the sperm quality of zebrafish Danio rerio. Lozano, V. Sex-dependent impact of Roundup on the rat gut microbiome.

Luaces, J. Ludvigsen, G. Fresenius Environ. Trends in pesticides in Norwegian streams and rivers Luo, L. In vitro cytotoxicity assessment of roundup glyphosate in L hepatocytes. Health B 52, — Lupi, L. Occurrence of glyphosate and AMPA in an agricultural watershed from the southeastern region of Argentina. Lushchak, O. Low toxic herbicide Roundup induces mild oxidative stress in goldfish tissues.

Chemosphere 76, — MacBean, C. The Pesticide Manual, 16th Edn. Mahler, B. Similarities and differences in occurrence and temporal fluctuations in glyphosate and atrazine in small Midwestern streams USA during the growing season. Majewski, M. Pesticides in Mississippi air and rain: a comparison between and Genotoxicity of AMPA, the environmental metabolite of glyphosate, assessed by the Comet assay and cytogenetic tests.

Ecotox Environ. Mann, R. Amphibians and agricultural chemicals: review of the risks in a complex environment. Maqueda, C. Behaviour of glyphosate in a reservoir and the surrounding agricultural soils. Marc, J. Glyphosate-based pesticides affect cell cycle regulation. Cell 96, — Mardiana-Jansar, K. Residue determination and levels of glyphosate in surface waters, sediments and soils associated with oil palm plantation in Tasik Chini, Pahang, Malaysia. AIP Conf. Margaritopoulou, T. Involvement of epigenetic mechanisms in herbicide resistance: The Case of Conyza canadensis.

Agriculture Markus, C. Jr Epigenetic regulation — contribution to herbicide resistance in weeds? Pest Manag. Marques, A. Progression of DNA damage induced by a glyphosate-based herbicide in fish Anguilla anguilla upon exposure and post-exposure periods—insights into the mechanisms of genotoxicity and DNA repair. C , — Martinez, D. Impacts of glyphosate-based herbicides on disease resistance and health of crops: a review.

Neurotransmitter changes in rat brain regions following glyphosate exposure. Martini, C. A commercial formulation of glyphosate inhibits proliferation and differentiation to adipocytes and induces apoptosis in 3T3-L1 fibroblasts. Glyphosate inhibits PPAR gamma induction and differentiation of Preadipocytes and is able to induce oxidative stress. Glyphosate-based herbicides with different adjuvants are more potent inhibitors of 3T3-L1 fibroblast proliferation and differentiation to adipocytes than glyphosate alone.

Path 25, — Matozzo, V. Ecotoxicological risk assessment for the herbicide glyphosate to non-target aquatic species: a case study with the mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis. McClellan, R. Evaluating the potential carcinogenic hazard of glyphosate. McDuffie, H. Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma and specific pesticide exposures in men: cross-Canada study of pesticides and health. Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev. McGuire, M. Glyphosate and aminomethylphosphonic acid are not detectable in human milk. McKnight, U.

Sources, occurrence and predicted aquatic impact of legacy and contemporary pesticides in streams. McVey, K. Exposure of C. Mendez, M. Glyphosate and Aminomethylphosphonic acid AMPA contents in the respirable dust emitted by an agricultural soil of the central semiarid region of Argentina. Aeolian Res. Subcellular energy balance of Odontesthes bonariensis exposed to a glyphosate-based herbicide.

Mensah, P. Larramendy and S. Soloneski Rijeka: InTech , 93— Mertens, M. Glyphosate, a chelating agent-relevant for ecological risk assessment? Environ Sci Pollut Res. Mesnage, R. Facts and fallacies in the debate on glyphosate toxicity. Ignoring adjuvant toxicity falsifies the safety profile of commercial pesticides.

Transcriptome profile analysis reflects rat liver and kidney damage following chronic ultra-low dose Roundup exposure. Health Ethoxylated adjuvants of glyphosate-based herbicides are active principles of human cell toxicity. Cytotoxicity on human cells of Cry1Ab and Cry1Ac Bt insecticidal toxins alone or with a glyphosate-based herbicide. Potential toxic effects of glyphosate and its commercial formulations below regulatory limits.

Major pesticides are more toxic to human cells than their declared active principles. Glyphosate exposure in a farmer's family. Evaluation of estrogen receptor alpha activation by glyphosate-based herbicide constituents. Multiomics reveal non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in rats following chronic exposure to an ultra-low dose of Roundup herbicide. Meza-Joya, F. Miko, Z. Standardize or diversify experimental conditions in ecotoxicology? A case study on herbicide toxicity to larvae of two anuran amphibians. Effects of a glyphosate-based herbicide and predation threat on the behaviour of agile frog tadpoles.

Milan, M. Ecotoxicological effects of the herbicide glyphosate in non-target aquatic species: transcriptional responses in the mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis. Mills, P. Excretion of the herbicide glyphosate in older adults between and Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development Hungary Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development on the authorization and trade of pesticides, and their packaging, labeling, storage and transport in Hungarian. Modesto, K. Effects of Roundup transorb on fish: hematology, antioxidant defenses and acetylcholinesterase activity. Monroy, C. Cytotoxicity and genotoxicity in human cells exposed in vitro to glyphosate.

Biomedica 25, — Monsanto Corp Louis, MO: Monsanto Company. Monte, T. Moon, J. Cardiovascular effects and fatality may differ according to the formulation of glyphosate salt herbicide. Cardiovasc Toxicol. Moreno, N. Genotoxic effects of the herbicide Roundup Transorb and its active ingredient glyphosate on the fish Prochilodus lineatus. Determination of glyphosate residues in Hungarian water samples by immunoassay. Mottier, A. Effects of glyphosate-based herbicides on embryo-larval development and metamorphosis in the Pacific oyster, Crassostrea gigas.

Myers, J. Concerns over use of glyphosate-based herbicides and risks associated with exposures: a consensus statement. Nardemir, G. Plant Physiol. National Food Chain Safety Office Navarro, C. Effects of the surfactant polyoxyethylene amine POEA on genotoxic, biochemical and physiological parameters of the freshwater teleost Prochilodus lineatus. C , 83— Nelsen, A. The Guardian Nevison, C.

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A comparison of temporal trends in United States autism prevalence to trends in suspected environmental factors. Newman, M. Glyphosate effects on soil rhizosphere-associated bacterial communities. Nicolas, V. Nicolopoulou-Stamati, P. Chemical pesticides and human health: the urgent need for a new concept in agriculture. Nielsen, L. Glyphosate has limited short-term effects on commensal bacterial community composition in the gut environment due to sufficient aromatic amino acid levels.

Niemann, L. A critical review of glyphosate findings in human urine samples and comparison with the exposure of operators and consumers. Nivelle, E. Effects of glyphosate application and nitrogen fertilization on the soil and the consequences on aboveground and belowground interactions. Geoderma , 45— Nwani, C. DNA damage and oxidative stress modulatory effects of glyphosate-based herbicide in freshwater fish, Channa punctatus. Ockleford, C. Scientific Opinion on the state of the science on pesticide risk assessment for amphibians and reptiles.

Owagboriaye, F. Reproductive toxicity of Roundup herbicide exposure in male albino rat. Paganelli, A. Glyphosate-based herbicides produce teratogenic effects on vertebrates by impairing retionic acid signaling. Pandolfo, C. Transgene escape and persistence in an agroecosystem: the case of glyphosate-resistant Brassica rapa L.

Parvez, S. Glyphosate exposure in pregnancy and shortened gestational length: a prospective Indiana birth cohort study. Paumgartten, F. Glyphosate exposure, cardiovascular diseases and cancer risks. Public Health Emerg. Payne, N. Off-target glyphosate from aerial silvicultural applications and buffer zones required around sensitive areas. Off-target deposits and buffer zones required around water for aerial glyphosate applications. Perego, M. Influence of a Roundup formulation on glyphosate effects on steroidogenesis and proliferation of bovine granulosa cells in vitro.

Spatial and temporal trends and flow dynamics of glyphosate and other pesticides within an agricultural watershed in Argentina. Perez, G. Kortekamp Rijeka: InTech , — Beneficial effects of the amino acid glycine. Perry, E. Genetically engineered crops and pesticide use in U. Persch, T. Peruzzo, P.

Levels of glyphosate in surface waters, sediments and soils associated with direct sowing soybean cultivation in north pampasic region of Argentina. Pinto, E. Methods 10, — Poiger, T. Poirier, F. Proteomic analysis of the soil filamentous fungus Aspergillus nidulans exposed to a Roundup formulation at a dose causing no macroscopic effect: a functional study. Popp, M. It contains detailed questions to assess the degree of respect for the Rule of Law in any given country.

This assessment will not merely consist of counting the right answers, but provide a global overview of the situation, while focusing on the respect for the most important criteria. The Rule of Law Checklist is a tool that is available to all stakeholders, including international organisations, national authorities and civil society. The Rule of Law in an enabling environment II. Collection of data and surveillance III. Examples of particular challenges to the Rule of Law.

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